Data Administration:

In the NICE Framework, cybersecurity work where a person: Develops and administers databases and/or data management systems that allow for the storage, query, and utilization of data.

Data aggregation:

The process of gathering and combining data from different sources, so that the combined data reveals new information. The new information is more sensitive than the individual data elements themselves and the person who aggregates the data was not granted access to the totality of the information.

Data breach:

The unauthorized movement or disclosure of sensitive information to a party, usually outside the organization, that is not authorized to have or see the information.

Data integrity:

The property that data is complete, intact, and trusted and has not been modified or destroyed in an unauthorized or accidental manner.

Data leakage:

Synonym(s): data breach

Data loss:

The result of unintentionally or accidentally deleting data, forgetting where it is stored, or exposure to an unauthorized party.

Data loss prevention:

A set of procedures and mechanisms to stop sensitive data from leaving a security boundary.

Data mining:

The process or techniques used to analyze large sets of existing information to discover previously unrevealed patterns or correlations.

Data theft:

The deliberate or intentional act of stealing of information.


To convert enciphered text to plain text by means of a cryptographic system.


To convert encoded text to plain text by means of a code.


A generic term encompassing decode and decipher.


The process of transforming ciphertext into its original plaintext. The process of converting encrypted data back into its original form, so it can be understood.

Denial of service:

An attack that prevents or impairs the authorized use of information system resources or services.

Designed-in security:

Synonym(s): Build Security In


The combination of cultural philosophies, practices, and tools that increases an organization’s ability to deliver applications and services at high velocity: evolving and improving products at a faster pace than organizations using traditional software development and infrastructure management processes. DevOps best practices include Continuous Integration, Continuous Delivery, Microservices, Infrastructure as Code, Monitoring and Logging, and Communication & Collaboration.


Is a discipline that compliments DevOps. Short for development, security, and operations, the objective of DevSecOps is to automate the integration of security at every phase of the software development lifecycle, from initial design through integration, testing, deployment, and software delivery

Digital forensics:

The processes and specialized techniques for gathering, retaining, and analyzing system-related data (digital evidence) for investigative purposes. In the NICE Framework, cybersecurity work where a person: Collects, processes, preserves, analyzes, and presents computer-related evidence in support of network vulnerability, mitigation, and/or criminal, fraud, counterintelligence or law enforcement investigations.

Digital rights management:

A form of access control technology to protect and manage use of digital content or devices in accordance with the content or device provider's intentions.

Digital signature:

A value computed with a cryptographic process using a private key and then appended to a data object, thereby digitally signing the data.


An event which causes unplanned interruption in operations or functions for an unacceptable length of time.

Distributed denial of service:

A denial of service technique that uses numerous systems to perform the attack simultaneously.

Dynamic attack surface:

The automated, on-the-fly changes of an information system's characteristics to thwart actions of an adversary.